Hairstyle, Footwear and Clothing for Gymnastic Activities in the Primary-School Setting

Syed Arif Kamal
3.071 824

Abstract


The authors recommend gymnastic kits for primary classes, while considering drawbacks of existing clothing choices. Safety, ease of changing, cost, weather considerations and social constraints were put together to propose a practical gym kit for school-based gymnastic activities. Age-wise recommendations are given for activity-appropriate hairstyle, footwear and clothing for primary classes for both indoor and outdoor sessions. Gymnastics should be done barefoot (indoors) and in pure-cotton socks and plimsolls (sneakers) outdoors, where barefoot exercises are not possible, with boys, unclothed from waist up, in briefs, legs uncovered from upper thighs to feet, or figure-hugging half pants, reaching just below knees; girls, unclothed from waist up, in knickers (panties), legs uncovered from upper thighs to feet, or leotard (with stockings, if desired). Girls should tie their long hair in the form of (hair) bun to expose the upper-neck area. Boys should be required to wear athletic supporters under briefs For training sessions, students are grouped in sections A, B and C — small children (sum of percentiles of height and mass below 50) placed in section A, children of medium built (sum 50 or above but below 150) in section B and big children (sum 150 or above) in section C.  Within a section and its sub-sections, a uniform dress code should be implemented for participating in gymnastic practices.


Keywords


Age-wise recommendations, activity-appropriate kit, safety, physical training

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akram, M. & Kamal, S. A. (1991, April 16-20). Role of moiré fringe topography in the skeletal examination of school athlete. In: The International Congress and Exposition on Sports Medicine and Human Performance (p. 2), Vancouver, Canada, abstract#36: http://www.ngds-ku.org/pub/confabst0.htm#C36:

American Academy of Pediatrics — Committee on Sports Medicine. (1982). Climatic heat stress and the exercising child. Pediatrics, 89 (6), 808-809

Atkinson, R. L., Atkinson, R. C. & Hilgard, E. R. (1981). Introduction to Psychology, p. 128; chapter 4: Sensory Processes — Skin Senses, 8th Ed. San Diego, California, USA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Burton, E. C. (1977). The New Physical Education for Elementary School Children, chapter 4, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Houghton Mufflin

Caroll, M. E. & Manners, H. K. (2003). Gymnastics 7-11: A Session-by-Session Approach to Key Stage 2, pp. 2-5; chapter 1: Introduction — Key Stage 2, e-Ed. London, UK: The Falmer Press & Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Taylor & Francis

Curtis, H. S. (1922). Athletics and the children’s clothes. American Physical Education Review, 27 (5), 224-227

Health Smart. (2013, January). The three-minute sleep fix. Reader’s Digest (Asia), 100 (599), 11

Joseph, L. H. (1949, March-April). Gymnastics in the pre-revolutionary eighteenth century, CIBA Symposia, 1054-1060

Kahan, D. (2003). Islam and physical activity: Implications for American sport and physical educators. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74 (3), 48-54

Kahan, D. (2008). Recess, extracurricular activities and active classrooms. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 79 (2), 26-31, 39

Kahan, D. (2011). AAA roadmap for navigating religion in physical education. Strategies, 24 (4), 20-24

Kamal, S. A. (1996a). A 3-D-static model of the human spinal column. Karachi University Journal of Science, 24 (1), 29-34; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J18.pdf

Kamal, S. A. (1996b, June 27-July 11). 3-D-dynamic modeling of the human spinal column. In: The Twenty-First International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC 1996), Nathiagali, KP, Pakistan; abstract: http://www.ngds-ku.org/pub/confabst0.htm#C42:

Kamal, S. A. (2008, December 20-23). Role of mathematics in sports sciences and technologies. In: The Thirty-Fifth All Pakistan Science Conference (Genomics for Health and Prosperity) (p. 75), Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi; Karachi University Journal of Science, 36 (1&2), 5; abstract#72: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Presentations/Sports.pdf

Kamal, S. A. (2014, May 17). Sports and anthromathematics. In: The Fifty-Fifth Annual Prize Distribution Function, Hyderabad, Pakistan: Government College (seminar); abstract: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Presentations/Sport_Mathematics.pdf

Kamal, S. A., Ansari, S. A. & Jamil, S. S. (2015). Generating and validating Growth-and-Obesity Roadmaps for the Pakistani children. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12 (1), 47-61; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J35.pdf

Kamal, S. A., Choudhry, A. S. & Siddiqui, Y. A. (1996). Gait analysis using moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography (simultaneous recording). Karachi University Journal of Science, 24 (2), 7-18; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J16.pdf

Kamal, S. A., Jamil, N. & Khan, S. A. (2011). Growth-and-Obesity Profiles of children of Karachi using box-interpolation method. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 8 (1), 87-96; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J29.pdf

Kamal, S. A. & Jamil, S. S. (2012). A method to generate growth-and-obesity profiles of children of still- growing parents. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 9 (3), 233-255; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J30.pdf

Kamal, S. A. & Jamil, S. S. (2014). KJ-regression model to evaluate optimal masses of extreme cases. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (4), 623-648; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J34.pdf

Kamal, S. A., Jamil, S. S. & Razzaq, U. A. (2014b). Stunting induced by wasting — wasting induced by stunting: A case study. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (1), 147-153; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J32.pdf

Kamal, S. A., & Khan, S. A. (2013, September 4, 5). Fitness for primary-school children. In: The First in Conference (ANTHROMATHEMATICS 2013) (p. 24), Karachi, Pakistan: Department of Mathematics, the Memory of (Late) Syed Firdous University of Karachi, and Hyderabad, Pakistan: Government College; abstract#Anthro13-18: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Presentations/Fitness.pdf

Kamal, S. A., & Khan, S. A. (2014). Primary-physical-education practices in Pakistan and England: Health and safety perspectives. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (2&3), 401-419; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J33.pdf

Kamal, S. A. Naseeruddin, Wasim, M., & Firdous, S. (1998). Physics of scoliosis screening in school- going children. Karachi University Journal of Science, 26 (1), 5-12; full text: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Papers/J22.pdf

Kamal, S. A., Sarwar, M., & Rajput, M. K. (2012, December 27-29). Crystal-structure concepts applied to static and dynamic modeling of the human spinal column. In: The International Conference on Condensed-Matter Physics and Engineering (p. 18), Multan, Pakistan: The Bahauddin Zakaria University; abstract: http://www.ngds-ku.org/Presentations/BZU1.pdf

Kirchner, G. (1970). Physical Education for Elementary School Children, 2nd Ed. Dubuque, Iowa, USA: William C. Brown

Laureano, J., Konukman, F., Gümüşdağ, H., Şamil Erdoğan, S., Jong-Hoon Yu, J. H. & Çekin, R. (2014). Effects of marginalization on school physical education programs: A literature review. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 64, ISSN (online) 1899-4849, DOI: 10.2478/pcssr- 2014-0029

McKenzie T. L. & Kahan, D. (2008). Physical activity, public health and elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal, 108 (3), 171-180

Ministry of Education and Central Office of Information. (1952). Physical Education in the Primary School: Part One — Moving and Growing, plates 2-4, London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office

Ministry of Education and Central Office of Information. (1953). Physical Education in the Primary School: Part Two — Planning the Programme, London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office

Russell, J. (1975). Creative Movement and Dance for Children, pp. 28-32, plates 8-16, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Plays

Signy, H. (2012, February). The baby, who was loved back to life. Reader’s Digest (Asia), 98 (588), 86- 93 (ideas summarized from the box on p.91: Our bodies are programmed to respond to touch)

Tirloni, A. S. & Moro, A. R. (2010). Interferência do vestuário no desempenho, na amplitude de movimento e no conforto na ginástica laboral (Clothing interference in performance, articular range of motion and comfort in labor gymnastics). Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano (Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry and Human Performance), 12 (6), 443-450

Trout, J. (2013). Digital movement analysis in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84 (7), 47-50

Tuckson, R. V. (2013). America’s childhood obesity crisis and the role of schools. Journal of School Health, 83 (3), 137, 138

Vendien, C. L., & Nixon, J. E. (1968). The World Today in Health, Physical Education and Recreation, p. 144; plate — third grade group work in gymnastics, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall

Authors’ Note: The authors are indebted to Laura Clinton, Physical Education Teacher in East Anglia, England for

extensive discussions regarding teaching of gymnastics in the primary-school setting of England. Thanks are, also,

due to authorities of Army Public School, ‘O’ Levels (serving children of personnel of Pakistan Army), Bahira

College, NORE I (serving children of personnel of Pakistan Navy), Beacon Light Academy (serving children of

civilian population) and Fazaia (PAF) Degree College (serving children of personnel of Pakistan Air Force), all of

them located in Karachi, Pakistan for allowing the NGDS Team (http://ngds.uok.edu.pk) to collect data on their

premises. No potential conflict of interest is identified for this work.