The Effects of Fitness Testing on Social Physique Anxiety and Physical Self-Perceptions.
This was a study of the effects of participation in fitness testing on physical self-esteem and social physique anxiety. All participants (N = 65) initially completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP). Those who had been randomly assigned to an experimental group (EXP) were then fitness tested, while those assigned to a control group (CON) were told that their tests would be scheduled later. After EXP members’ fitness tests were finished and interpreted, all EXP and CON participants completed the SPAS and PSPP again. Then, the CON members’ fitness tests were conducted and interpreted. Before testing, all participants were asked to predict their fitness ratings. Most predictions were accurate (58% of the total over the five tests), but when inaccurate, participants received “good news” significantly more often than “bad news” (33% vs. 9% overall). There were no experimental effects on the SPAS or on the five PSPP scales, except that males scored higher than females on the general physical self-worth subscale. Also, there were no differences between the PSPP or SPAS scores of those participants who received “good news” compared with those who received “bad news” from their fitness score interpretations. Since participants’ scores on SPAS and PSPP were typical of those reported in the literature, and because there were no effects from fitness testing, the results support the premise that fitness tests can be used for curricular purposes without causing adverse effects on physical self-esteem or social physique anxiety.
Astrand, P.O., Ryhming, I. (1954) "A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity (physical fitness) from pulse rates during submaximal work". Journal of Applied Physiology 7, 218-221.
Bowyer, G. R. (1996). Student perceptions of physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 67(1), 23-26..
Fox, K.R. (1990). The Physical Self-Perception Manuel. DeKalb, IL: Office for Health Promotion, Northern Illinois University.
Fox, K.R., Biddle, S.J. (1988). The use of fitness tests: Educational and psychological considerations. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 59(2), 47-53.
Fox, K.R., Corbin, C.B. (1989). The Physical Self-Perception Profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 408-430.
Freedman, D.S., Wang, J., Thornton, J.C., Mei, Z., Sopher, A.B., Pierson, R.N., Dietz, W.H., Horlick, M. (2009). Classification of body mass index-for-age categories among children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 163, 805-811.
Frederick, C.M., Morrison, C.S. (1996). Social physique anxiety: Personality constructs, motivations, exercise attitudes, and behaviors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 963-972.
Going, S.B. Lohman, T.G. (1990). The skinfold test: A response. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 61(8), 74-78.
Harris, J., Cale, L. (2006). A review of children’s fitness testing. European Physical Education Review, 2, 201-225.
Hart, E.A., Leary, M.R., Rejeski, W.J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal
of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 94-104.
Huang, J.S., Norman, G.J., Zabinski, M.F., Calfas, K.J., Patrick, K. (2007). Body image and self- esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 245-251.
Jackson, A.S., Pollock, M.L. (1985). Practical assessment of body composition. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 13(5): 76-90.
Lantz, C.D., Hardy, C.J., Ainsworth, B.E. (1997). Social Physique Anxiety and Perceived Exercise Behavior. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20(1), 83-93.
Riley, J.H. (1990). A critique of skinfold tests from the public school level. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 61(8), 71-73.
Sardinha, L.B., Going, S.B., Teixiera, P.J., Lohman, T.G. (1999). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm girth for obesity screening in children and adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 1090-1095.
Silverman, S., Keating, X.D., Phillips, S.R. (2008). A lasting impression: A pedagogical perspective on youth fitness testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12, 146- 166.
Standley, R., Sullivan, V., Wardle, J. (2009). Self-perceived weight in adolescents: Over-estimation of under-estimation? Body Image, 6, 56-59.
Talamayan, K.S., Springer, A.E., Kelder, S.H., Gorospe, E.C., Joye, K.A. (2006). Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States. The Scientific World JOURNAL, 6, 365-373.
Thomas, D.Q., Whitehead, J.R. (1993). Body composition assessment: Some practical answers to teachers' questions. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 64(5), 16-19
Whitehead, J. R., Pemberton, C. L., Corbin, C. B. (1990). Perspectives on the physical fitness testing of children: The case for a realistic educational approach. Pediatric Exercise Science, 2, 111- 123.
Whitehead, J.R., Shorten, M.R. (1998). Instructor’s Manual for Fitsolve II. Madison, WI: McGraw- Hill.
Whitehead, J.R., Eklund, R.C., Williams, A.C. (2003). Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: Cognitive and affective outcomes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 6, 461-476.
Wiersma, L.D., Sherman, C.P. (2008). The responsible use of youth fitness testing to enhance student motivation, enjoyment, and performance. Measurement in Physical Education and exercise Science, 12, 167-183.
Zabinski, M.F., Calfas, K.J., Gehrman, C.A., Wilfley, D.E., Sallis, J.F. (2001). Effects of a physical activity intervention on body image in university seniors: Project GRAD. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 247-252.